Six Sigma Tools

Created By : Jatin Gogia
Reviewed By : Phani Ponnapalli
Last Updated at : Oct 11,2023

Get our easy-to-operate Six Sigma Tools to solve probelms related to the DPO, DPMO, DPU, Sigma Level, and the process Yield, based on the number of units, a number of defect opportunities per unit, and the number of defects values of the given data set. Just you need to provide data set values in the given input field of the calculator and hit on the calculate button to get the accurate output immediately.

SSC of Units:
SSC of Defect Opportunities Per Unit:
SSC of Defects:
SSC Sigma Shift:

What Is Six Sigma: Six Sigma (6σ) is an established framework that employs a data-driven approach to reduce defects, ensure quality control, enhance management, eliminate waste, improve service delivery, and manage other operational activities.

Six Sigma Tools: Make use of this free calculator to check multiple things in one place. Our Six Sigma Tools not only gives the exact result but also provides the detailed steps involved in solving those statistics parameters. This is the right place for those who are looking for a tool that computes Six Sigma and other statistics parameters involved while solving them.

What is Six Sigma?

Six sigma is to improve business processes capabilities by providing a set of techniques & tools. Like  sigma level calculator. It is simply the measure of the quality of an organization that strives for near perfection.

Six Sigma Table

The following six sigma table illustrates the meaning of various six sigma levels:

Sigma Level

Defect Rate



308,770 DPMO



66,811 DPMO



6,210 DPMO



233 DPMO



344 DPMO



Key Terminologies & Six Sigma Formulas for Six Sigma Calculation

Defects per Unit (DPU): It is the average no of defects per unit.

DPU = (no of defects found in sample) / sample size. Dpu six sigma Formulas. Dpu calculator.

Defects per Opportunity (DPO): It is basic calculations that help in calculating DPMO.

DPO = (total no of defects) / (total no of defect opportunities)

Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO): It is the ratio of the number of defects in 1 million opportunities. It shows how many defects you have in a sample where you have an opportunity for defects. How to calculate dpmo, Dpmo calculator Tool.

DPMO = (total no of defects/ total no of defect opportunities) × 1,000,000

Yield: It is the ability to produce defect-free units of a given process. The Yield is calculated with the help of Defects per Unit (DPU).

Yield = [(total number of opportunities - total number of defects) /Total no of opportunities] × 100

Sigma Level: It is a high-level metric to know the process capabilities that meet customer requirements. Here DPMO is used to calculate the Sigma level of a given product.

For your convenience, the step-by-step process in evaluating Six Sigma is given below. Also, visit and boost your skills in statistical concepts.

How to Calculate Six Sigma Manually?

How to calculate sigma, Six Sigma is a quality program for process improvement that gives very few defects over longer task runs. In other words, "six sigma" procedure demands rarer occurrence; that is occurrence of only 3.4 errors for every million opportunities. 

The concept of six sigma applies to any type of work that demands high efficiency with very low error tolerance.

Given are the steps to calculate Six Sigma manually:-

  • In your line of work, identify the opportunity and the defect.
  • Do a precise evaluation of all opportunities and defects. 
  • To calculate yield, subtract the calculated value of defects from the total opportunities, then divide by the total opportunities & express the result in percentage.
  • Compare calculated yield to the standard values given for six sigma performance. To fulfill the criteria for six sigma levels, the yield must be equal to or more than 99.99966%.

Solved Example of Calculating Six Sigma Calculations With Steps


Calculate the Sigma Ratings based on the given scenario:

Consider a billing mechanism project where the team needs the customer to have the right bills sent. For this process, they have depicted one opportunity to check whether the bill is correct or not. In the terms of complexity, all of the generated bills are the same. The team considered a sample of 270 bills and recognized 90 defects.


Given that,

Total Number of Defects: 90

Total Number of Units: 270

Total Number of Defect Opportunities per Unit: 1

Now calculating DPU, DPO, DPMO, and Yield based on the given particulars,


DPU=DefectsTotal number of units= 90/270=0.34


DPO=DefectsTotal number of units * opportunities per unit= 90/(270*1)=0.34


DPMO=DPO * 106 = 0.34 * 106=36.04


Yield=1-DPO= 1-0.34=0.66

Based on the Process Sigma table, the process being implemented by the team only has a sigma rating between 1 to 2. The higher the degree of sigma, the lower the number of defects.

FAQs On Online Six Sigma Tools Free Download

1. How do I calculate sigma?

To measure the Standard Deviation for a Population (σ)

  1. First, determine the mean of the data set (μ)
  2. Then subtract the mean from each value in the data set.
  3. Now take the square of the differences found in step 2.
  4. Find out the sum of the squared differences found in step 3.
  5. Divide the total from step 4 by N.

2. What percentage is 6 Sigma?

Six Sigma performance produces a defect-free product 99.99966% of the time while allowing only 3.4 errors per one million opportunities.

3. How do you calculate sigma in Excel?

To calculate sigma level directly in Excel using the formula of sigma level ie., equal to (NORMSINV(1-$D3))+1.5, where the data in cell D3 is entered as a decimal.

4. What is the value of 6 Sigma?

Six Sigma quality performance means 3.4 defects per million opportunities.